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Some of the following publications are available for download as Adobe PDF documents. Download Acrobat Reader

Factors Affecting Emissions from Commercial Aluminum Reduction Cells
(PDF 316 KB)
The U.S. EPA and the Aluminum Association sponsored measurements of two perfluorocarbon (PFC) gases: tetrafluoromethane and hexafluoroethane. The measurements at six primary aluminum production facilities provided data on emissions of these compounds during normal aluminum smelting operations.

Technology and Economics of Reducing PFC Emissions from Aluminium Production (PDF 139 KB)
The paper, presented in 2002 at the Third International Symposium on Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (NCGG-3), provides an overview of global efforts to reduce emissions and reviews technical options to reduce PFC greenhouse gas emissions from primary aluminum production.

Protocol for Measurement of Tetrafluoromethane and Hexafluoroethane from Primary Aluminum Production (PDF 169 KB)
This paper describes a measurement protocol, developed by EPA and the International Aluminum Institute, to assist with developing accurate PFC inventories based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 3b method. The protocol has been produced with an aim to foster consistency in smelter-specific sampling programs.

Perfluorocarbon (PFC) Generation during Primary Aluminum Production
(PDF 331 KB)
The primary aluminum industry is continually working to improve production efficiency, reduce energy consumption, and enhance environmental performance. As part of EPA's Voluntary Aluminum Industrial Partnership (VAIP) Program, eleven U.S. primary producers are focusing on reducing the duration and frequency of anode effects (AEs), which reduce production efficiency and generate two perfluorocarbons (PFCs), CF4 and C2F6.

International Efforts to Reduce Perfluorocarbon Emissions from Primary Aluminum Production (PDF 1.3 MB)
This report summarizes international efforts to reduce PFC emissions through government-industry initiatives. It describes each producer nation's PFC reduction efforts, accomplishments, and challenges. Future options for reducing PFC emissions from primary aluminum production are also discussed.

Perfluorocarbon (PFC) Generation at Primary Aluminum Smelters (PDF 80 KB)
This paper presents the results of the first set of PFC measurements sponsored by the VAIP Program at individual aluminum smelters. The paper reviews the data, and provides recommendations for predicting PFC emissions based on time reduction cells are on anode effect. This paper was published in the February 1998 issue of Light Metals.

Aluminum Processing Energy Benchmark Report (PDF 3.16 MB)
Substantial energy efficiency gains have been made in the aluminum industry over the past forty years, resulting in a 58% decrease in energy utilization. However, as shown in the recently completed U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production, Historical Perspective, Theoretical Limits, and New Opportunities, room for improvement remains. Overall, the industry is operating at more than three times its theoretical minimum energy requirement. This report provides detailed appendices, statistical data, and descriptions of the fundamental chemistry as well as practical aspects of aluminum production processes. It compares current usage levels and theoretical minimum energy requirements to demonstrate that large energy saving opportunities exist.

Efficient Process Heating in the Aluminum Industry (PDF 279 KB)
This 8-page brochure provides pointers for enhancing the efficiency of melters and furnaces to cut process heating costs by 10 to 30%.

Applications for Advanced Ceramics in Aluminum Production (PDF 7.3 MB)
This workshop report is a starting point for identifying opportunities for use of advanced ceramics in aluminum production and processing. The report addresses aluminum production via smelting and melting, as well as molten metal handling. However, opportunities for advanced ceramics most likely exist further downstream in the aluminum process (casting, finishing, etc.).

Aluminum Industry of the Future Tools & Publications
ITP offers a wide array of publications, videos, software, and other information products for improving energy efficiency in the aluminum industry.

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Case Studies

The following case studies are available for download as Adobe PDF documents.
Download Acrobat Reader

Aluminum Case Studies

  • Alcoa Lafayette Operations Energy Efficiency Assessment (PDF 235 KB)
  • Improved System Yields $100,000 Annual Savings (PDF 76 KB)
  • The Challenge: Improving Dust Collection System at an Aluminum Refinery (PDF 128 KB)
  • Alcoa/Alumax Reduces Energy Costs While Improving it's Dust Collection Systems (PDF 263 KB)
  • Alcoa North American Extrusions Implements Energy Use Assessments at Multiple Facilities (PDF 246 KB)
  • Corporate Energy Conservation Program for Alcoa North American Extrusions (PDF 197 KB)
  • Improving Dust Collection System at an Aluminum Refinery (PDF 178 KB)
  • Power Factor Study Reduces Energy Costs at Aluminum Extrusion Plant (PDF 180 KB)

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Page Last Modified:   August 7, 2008